NBC Hannibal Edit
Social exclusion (also referred to as marginalisation) is a concept used in many parts of the world to characterise contemporary forms of social disadvantage and relegation to the fringe of society. It is a term used widely in the United Kingdom and Europe and was first utilized in France. It is used across disciplines including education, sociology, psychology, politics and economics.
Social exclusion refers to processes in which individuals or entire communities of people are systematically blocked from rights, opportunities and resources (e.g. housing, employment, healthcare, civic engagement, democratic participation and due process) that are normally available to members of society and which are key to social integration.
The resulting alienation or disenfranchisement is often connected to a person's social class, educational status, relationships in childhood and living standards. It also applies to some degree to people with a disability, minorities, people of all sexual orientations and gender identities (e.g., the LGBT community), to the elderly, and to youth. Anyone who deviates in any perceived way from the norm of a population may become subject to coarse or subtle forms of social exclusion.
The outcome of social exclusion is that affected individuals or communities are prevented from participating fully in the economic, social, and political life of the society in which they live. Material deprivation is the most common result of this exclusion. Ensuing poverty, emotional and psychological trauma, and its resulting diseases may result in catastrophic damage to lives, health, and psyche.
Most of the characteristics listed in this article are present together in studies of social exclusion, due to exclusion's multidimensionality.
Sociologists see strong links between crime and social exclusion in industrialized societies such as the United States. Growing crime rates may reflect the fact that a growing number of people do not feel valued in the societies in which they live. The socially excluded population cannot meet the standards of economic status and consumption that are promoted within society. Therefore, legitimate means are bypassed in favor of illegal ones. Crime is favored over the political system or community organization. Young people increasingly grow up without guidance and support from the adult population. Young people also face diminishing job opportunities to sustain a livelihood. This can cause a sense of willingness to turn to illegitimate means of sustaining a desired lifestyle.
In gay men, results of psychoemotional damage from marginalization from both heterosexual society and from within mainstream homosexual society include bug chasing (purposeful acts to acquire HIV), suicide, and drug addiction.
In Philosophy Edit
The marginal, the processes of marginalisation, etc. bring specific interest in postmodern and postcolonial philosophy and social studies. Postmodernism question the "center" about its authenticity and postmodern sociology and cultural studies research marginal cultures, behaviours, societies, the situation of the marginalized individual, etc.
Linda Hutcheon describes postmodernism itself as "intertextual, parodic, contradictory, provisional, heterogeneous, transgressive of generic divisions, ex-centric and marginal".